You can see examples of literary scholars reading texts very carefully and writing very short interpretations of those texts.
One great way to build context for your reading is to see what other scholars have said about the themes and characters in your book. Scholars don't always agree with each other, so it's interesting to skim more than one article. Look for how that scholar interprets the work, and how that scholar talks about interpretations done by other scholars.
There are many places to search for good scholarly discussion about literature. We're just going to look at one of these places.