Large, monthly survey of households conducted for over 50 years by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Known for its annual March supplement which is a source for annual earnings, work experience, migration, cash and non-cash income, pension and health insurance coverage. Also, the May supplement includes earnings, multiple job holding, and premium pay.
Long panel survey of households (oversampling poor families), which includes sources of income, employment, family composition changes, demographic events, housing and food expenditures, wealth, housework time, and health status.
Household data especially strong on income and participation in government programs (e.g., social security, welfare, etc.). Tricky to use and access: datasets are large and non-response rates are high. Nevertheless, you can find employment, education and training, program participation, assets and liabilities, migration, fertility, work schedules, child care, pension, property, and time spent out of work.
Diary time use data collected since 2003 about activities individuals engage in as well as characteristics of others in their households. Includes working, educational, caring for self and others, recreational, household and religious activities.
Labor Data at ICPSR
These are just some examples of what you can find at ICPSR.