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HIST 100.05: Indians, Spaniards, and Empire

Professor Elena McGrath - Fall 2019

Citations for Historians

Generally use the Chicago Manual of Style - footnotes/bibliography (chapter 14) citation style.

Where to find bibliographic info in a book

Date place of pub for citation in book

Examples: Citing Common Publication Types

There are two versions of Chicago Style:

  1. "Notes and bibliography" (Chapter 14): footnotes (N) and bibliography (B); used more in humanities
  2. "Author-date" (Chapter 15): parenthetical citations and Reference List; used more in the social sciences

In the examples below, we show how to cite a source in a footnote (N), accompanying bibliography (B). Your bibliography should be alphabetized by author last name. For works that do not have an author, alphabetize by item title (omitting articles like "a" or "the"). Your bibliography should also be formatted using Hanging Indents.

In this guide:

Books

(N) 1. FirstName LastName, Title of work (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), PageNumbers.
(B) Lastname, Firstname. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

example:

(N) 1. A. B. Jones, My Book for Citation (Minneapolis: Good Books Press, 2014), 78-79.
(B) Jones, A. B. My Book for Citation. Minneapolis: Good Books Press, 2014.

Book chapters

(N) 1. FirstName LastName, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book, ed. EditorFirstName EditorLastName. (Place: Publisher, Year), PageNumber.
(B) LastName, FirstName. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book. edited by EditorFirstName EditorLastName, PageNumberSpan. Place: Publisher, Year.

example:

(N) 1. John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.
(B) Kelly, John D. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Periodicals (journals, magazines)

(N) 1. Firstname A. Lastname and Firstname B. Lastname, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical, xx, no.x (Year): pp-pp.
(B) Lastname, Firstname A., Firstname B. Lastname, and Firstname C. Lastname. "Title of Article." Title of periodical xx, no.x (Year): pp-pp., doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx.

example:

(N) 1. Jamie A. Smith, Arnold B. Miller, and Jose P. Rodriguez, "I Love Citation," All About Citation 21, no.1 (2012): 1-10.
(B) Smith, Jamie A., Arnold B. Miller, and Jose P. Rodriguez. "I Love Citation." All About Citation 21, no.1 (2012): 1-10.

Newspaper Article

example:

(N) 1. David G. Savage, “Stanford Student Goes to Supreme Court to Fight for Her Moms,” Los Angeles Times, April 27, 2015, Nation, http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-gay-marriage-children-20150424-story.html.

(B) Newspapers are more commonly cited in notes or parenthetical references than in bibliographies.

More information...

Work in a Series

(N) 1. Muriel St. Clare Byrne, ed., The Lisle Letters (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 4:243.

(B) Byrne, Muriel St. Clare, ed. The Lisle Letters. 6 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Informally or Unpublished Reports

(N) 1. Firstname Lastname, "Title" (source type, location, year), page numbers, link if available.
(B) Lastname, Firstname. "Title." source type, location, year, link if available. 

example:

(N) 1. John Smith, "Apple of the Eye" (Senior thesis, Carleton College, 2016), 17-23.
(B) Smith, John. "Apple of the Eye." Senior thesis, Carleton College, 2016.

Web Pages

On dates: Include a publication date or date of revision or modification if possible; else, access date.

(N) Firstname Lastname, "Page Title," Website Title, last modified/accessed/updated date, URL.
(B) Lastname, Firstname. "Page Title." Website Title. Date. URL.

example:

(N) 1. “Balkan Romani,” Endangered Languages, Alliance for Linguistic Diversity, accessed April 6, 2016, http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/5342.
(B) "Balkan Romani." Endangered Languages, Alliance for Linguistic Diversity. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/5342.
 

Images and Art

If citing images found in published works or online collections, cite them similarly to book chapters, articles, or web pages within website, with the artist in the author position and the image title in the chapter title, article title, or webpage title position.

If citing images or art that stand alone:

(N) 1. Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Slave, 1513-15, marble, 2.09 m., Paris, The Louvre.
(B) Buonarroti, Michelangelo. The Slave, 1513-15. Marble, 2.09 m. Paris, The Louvre.

Data Sets

(N) 1. Creator, Title (Place: Publisher, Year), link.
(B) Creator. Title. Place: Publisher, Year. link.

example:

(N) 1. The World Bank. Washington Development Indicators. (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2012). http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.
(B) The World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2012. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.

Films, Videos, or DVDs

(N) 1. Firstname Lastname of Writer, Title, Directed by Firstname Lastname (Place: Studio, Year), format.
(B) Lastname, Firstname. Title. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Place: Studio, Year. Format. 

example:

(N) 1. John Wong, Cool People at the Libe, Directed by Cat Toff (Northfield: Gould Libe, 1999). DVD.
(B) Wong, John. Cool People at the Libe. Directed by Cat Toff. Northfield: Gould Libe, 1999. DVD.

There are two versions of Chicago Style: "notes and bibliography" and "author-date" style. The "Notes" style uses footnotes and sometimes a Bibliography, and is typically used in the humanities. "Author-Date" uses in-text parenthetical citations plus a Reference List, and is more typically used in the social sciences.

In the paranthetical citation, you will put the author's last name followed by the publication year, comma, page number. For example (Smith 2017, 214).

In the examples below, we show how to cite a source in a Reference List.

Books

Lastname, Firstname. Year. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

example:

Jones, A.B. 2014. My Book for Citation. Minneapolis: Good Books Press.

Book chapters

LastName, FirstName. Year. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book. edited by EditorFirstName EditorLastName, PageNumberSpan. Place: Publisher.

example:

(R) Kelly, John D. 2010. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Periodicals (newspapers, journals, magazines)

Lastname, Firstname A., Firstname B. Lastname, and Firstname C. Lastname. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical xx (no. x): pp-pp. 

example:

Smith, Jamie A., Arnold B. Miller, and Jose P. Rodriguez. 2012. "I Love Citation." All About Citation 21 (1): 1-10.

Informally or Unpublished Reports

Lastname, Firstname. Year. "Title." source type, location. link if available.

example:

Smith, John. 2016. "Apple of the Eye." Senior thesis, Carleton College.

Images and Art

If citing images found in published works or online collections, cite them similarly to book chapters, articles, or web pages within website, with the artist in the author position and the image title in the chapter title, article title, or webpage title position.

If citing images or art that stand alone:

Buonarroti, Michelangelo. 1513-15. The Slave. Marble, 2.09 m. Paris, The Louvre.

Data Sets

Creator. Year. Title. Place: Publisher. link

Example:

The World Bank. 2012. World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.

Video/DVD

Lastname, Firstname. Year. Title. Performed by Firstname Lastname. Place: Studio. Format.

example:

Wong, John. 1999. Cool People at the Libe. Directed by Cat Toff. Northfield: Gould Libe. DVD.

Zotero: Footnotes made easy!

Why use Zotero? 

  1. It will help you gather the right information the first time

  2. It knows all the ins and outs of Chicago!

  3. It will build a complete bibliography -- formatted correctly! -- with the push of a button!

  4. It's free! You can take it with you when you leave!