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Primary Sources

Economics

Primary sources in this discipline are often data sets. Below are some places to start to find this kind of data. Please reach out to Kristin Partlo (kpartlo@carleton.edu) if you need help finding primary sources for Economics!

Educational Studies

Primary sources in this discipline include government data on educational statistics, and other materials such as non-profit or think tank reports and school district studies and reports. Below are some places to start looking for primary sources. Please contact Claudia Peterson (cpeterson3@carleton.edu) if you need any help finding primary sources in this discipline!

Linguistics

Primary sources in this discipline can be generally described as data sets that demonstrate examples of particular construction of language. These can include recordings, descriptive grammars, and ethnologues. Descriptive grammars, while usually secondary sources, can sometimes be the only place where a given data set is published. As a result, they make great resources to find other primary sources through looking at their citations. In addition to data sets, cultural materials can also be used as primary sources in Linguistics. Below are some places to start looking for primary sources. Ethnologues can be tricky to find, so here are some tips to find them: search the language in OLAC and pull out what you can about what is known about the resources on that language. Once you have those resources, Google search their titles and you will be able to find the full resource from that search. Please reach out to Iris Jastram (ijastram@carleton.edu) if you need any help finding primary sources for Linguistics! 

Political Science and International Relations

Primary sources in this discipline range from official government documents and statements from political leaders to data (such as surveys or election results) to texts of political philosophy. Below are some resources to start looking for these kinds of primary sources. Most of them serve both fields, however there are some resources that will specifically be useful for International Relations research. Those resources are: the international section of the Government Documents guide, and resources from FBIS, JPRS, and the Foreign Office Files for India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, 1947-1980. Please reach out to Sean Leahy (sleahy@carleton.edu) if you need any help finding primary sources in these disciplines!

Pyschology and Cognitive Science

Primary Sources in this discipline often consist of scientific research. This research is referred to as an "empirical study." In contrast, a "literature review" or a "systemic review" often refers to a secondary source in these disciplines. Both are often found in academic journals. Below are some resources that are good places to start finding primary sources. Within PsycINFO, the "test and measures" filter for search results can be helpful to both focus to more primary sources, and to see what other resources there are on your topic. Please reach out to Emily Scharf (escharf@carleton.edu) if you need help finding primary sources in these disciplines!

SOAN

Primary Sources in this discipline mostly consist of ethnographies or original observations/research. Below are some places to find ethnographies, which are often located in books. Finding ethnographies can sometimes be tricky, and so here are some tips to help you find them:

  • In Catalyst, try using the term "ethnog*" in the abstract search field of an advanced search, along with your topic in the primary search field. The subject search field can be spotty for finding these resources, which is why you should try the abstract search field instead.
  • You can try searching for book reviews as a way to find ethnographies. Even though book reviews are secondary sources, the reviews usually discuss methodology and might help you find books that employ ethnography in their research. In JSTOR and Project Muse, two good places to look for book reviews, limit your search to book reviews and Anthropology and then search "ethnog*" and your topic.
  • The SOAN 110 guide listed below also includes some good suggestions for finding these resources.

Please reach out to Kristin Partlo (kpartlo@carleton.edu) if you need any help finding primary sources for SOAN!