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How to Cite Your Sources

APA 7th Style Manual

General elements of a citation

  • Who:  The author, authors, or organizations responsible for the piece
  • What:  Title of the piece
  • When:  When the piece was published
  • Where:  Where the piece was published or presented

Journal articles

  • Author(s)
  • Year
  • Article title
  • Journal title
  • Volume / issue
  • Pages
  • DOI (if available)


Grundy, J., & Hosking, J. (2002). Developing adaptable user interfaces for component-based systems. Interacting with Computers, 14(3), 175-194. doi: 10.1016/s0953-5438(01)00049-2


  • Author(s)
  • Year
  • Book title
  • Publisher, note you do not need the publisher's location in APA 7th edition.


Stephanidis, C. (2001). User interfaces for all: concepts, methods, and tools. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

Book sections or chapters

  • Author(s)
  • Year
  • Title of the chapter
  • Editor(s) of the book
  • Title of the book
  • Publisher, note you do not need the publisher's location in APA 7th edition.
  • Pages   


Akoumianakis, D., Grammenos, D., & Stephanidis, C. (2001). User interface adaptation: Evaluation perspectives. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.), User interfaces for all: Concepts, methods, and tools (pp. 339-352). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Conference Paper or Presentation

  • Author(s)
  • Year, Month, Day (if all are available)
  • Presentation Title
  • Describe the presentation in square brackets after the title e.g., “[Conference session],” “[Paper presentation],” “[Poster session],” “[Keynote address]”.
  • Conference title
  • Organization name
  • Conference location   


Stuerzlinger, W., Chapuis, O., Phillips, D., & Roussel, N. (2006). User interface facades: towards fully adaptable user interfaces [Paper presentation]. Proceedings of the 19th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology, Montreux, Switzerland.


  • Author
  • Date (use "n.d." if there is no date given)
  • Title of document
  • Source (the URL)

The APA website has a lot of guidance on website citations new to the 7th edition as there are many variations.


Shapiro, A. (February 2, 2018). How to understand the philosophy of 'Groundhog Day' and live life by its message. NPR.