How to Cite Your Sources

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Style Guides

What does an Annotated Bibliography look like?

Examples: Citing Common Publication Types

There are two versions of Chicago Style: "notes and bibliography" and "author-date" style. The "Notes" style uses footnotes and sometimes a Bibliography, and is typically used in the humanities. "Author-Date" uses in-text paranthetical citations plus a Reference List, and is more typically used in the social sciences.

In the examples below, we show how to cite a source in a footnote (N), accompanying bibliography (B).

Books

(N) 1. FirstName LastName, Title of work (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), PageNumbers.
(B) Lastname, Firstname. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

example:

(N) 1. A. B. Jones, My Book for Citation (Minneapolis: Good Books Press, 2014), 78-79.
(B) Jones, A. B. My Book for Citation. Minneapolis: Good Books Press, 2014.

Book chapters

(N) 1. FirstName LastName, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book, ed. EditorFirstName EditorLastName. (Place: Publisher, Year), PageNumber.
(B) LastName, FirstName. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book. edited by EditorFirstName EditorLastName, PageNumberSpan. Place: Publisher, Year.

example:

(N) 1. John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.
(B) Kelly, John D. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Periodicals (newspapers, journals, magazines)

(N) 1. Firstname A. Lastname and Firstname B. Lastname, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical, xx, no.x (Year): pp-pp.
(B) Lastname, Firstname A., Firstname B. Lastname, and Firstname C. Lastname. "Title of Article." Title of periodical xx, no.x (Year): pp-pp., doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx.

example:

(N) 1. Jamie A. Smith, Arnold B. Miller, and Jose P. Rodriguez, "I Love Citation," All About Citation 21, no.1 (2012): 1-10.
(B) Smith, Jamie A., Arnold B. Miller, and Jose P. Rodriguez. "I Love Citation." All About Citation 21, no.1 (2012): 1-10.

Informally or Unpublished Reports

(N) 1. Firstname Lastname, "Title" (source type, location, year), page numbers, link if available.
(B) Lastname, Firstname. "Title." source type, location, year, link if available. 

example:

(N) 1. John Smith, "Apple of the Eye" (Senior thesis, Carleton College, 2016), 17-23.
(B) Smith, John. "Apple of the Eye." Senior thesis, Carleton College, 2016.

Web Sites

(N) Firstname Lastname, "Page Title," Website Title, accesssed date, URL.
(B) Lastname, Firstname. "Page Title." Website Title. Accessed date. URL.

example:

(N) 1. “Balkan Romani,” Endangered Languages, Alliance for Linguistic Diversity, accessed April 6, 2016, http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/5342.
(B) "Balkan Romani." Endangered Languages, Alliance for Linguistic Diversity. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/5342.
 

Images and Art

If citing images found in published works or online collections, cite them similarly to book chapters, articles, or web pages within website, with the artist in the author position and the image title in the chapter title, article title, or webpage title position.

If citing images or art that stand alone:

(N) 1. Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Slave, 1513-15, marble, 2.09 m., Paris, The Louvre.
(B) Buonarroti, Michelangelo. The Slave, 1513-15. Marble, 2.09 m. Paris, The Louvre.

Data Sets

(N) 1. Creator, Title (Place: Publisher, Year), link.
(B) Creator. Title. Place: Publisher, Year. link.

(N) 1. The World Bank. Washington Development Indicators. (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2012). http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.
(B) The World Bank. World Development Indicators. 2012. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.

Video/DVD

(N) 1. Firstname Lastname of Writer, Title, Directed by Firstname Lastname (Place: Studio, Year), format.
(B) Lastname, Firstname. Title. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Place: Studio, Year. Format. 

example:

(N) 1. John Wong, Cool People at the Libe, Directed by Cat Toff (Northfield: Gould Libe, 1999). DVD.
(B) Wong, John. Cool People at the Libe. Directed by Cat Toff. Northfield: Gould Libe, 1999. DVD.

There are two versions of Chicago Style: "notes and bibliography" and "author-date" style. The "Notes" style uses footnotes and sometimes a Bibliography, and is typically used in the humanities. "Author-Date" uses in-text parenthetical citations plus a Reference List, and is more typically used in the social sciences.

In the paranthetical citation, you will put the author's last name followed by the publication year, comma, page number. For example (Smith 2017, 214).

In the examples below, we show how to cite a source in a Reference List.

Books

Lastname, Firstname. Year. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

example:

Jones, A.B. 2014. My Book for Citation. Minneapolis: Good Books Press.

Book chapters

LastName, FirstName. Year. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book. edited by EditorFirstName EditorLastName, PageNumberSpan. Place: Publisher.

example:

(R) Kelly, John D. 2010. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Periodicals (newspapers, journals, magazines)

Lastname, Firstname A., Firstname B. Lastname, and Firstname C. Lastname. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical xx (no. x): pp-pp. 

example:

Smith, Jamie A., Arnold B. Miller, and Jose P. Rodriguez. 2012. "I Love Citation." All About Citation 21 (1): 1-10.

Informally or Unpublished Reports

Lastname, Firstname. Year. "Title." source type, location. link if available.

example:

Smith, John. 2016. "Apple of the Eye." Senior thesis, Carleton College.

Images and Art

If citing images found in published works or online collections, cite them similarly to book chapters, articles, or web pages within website, with the artist in the author position and the image title in the chapter title, article title, or webpage title position.

If citing images or art that stand alone:

Buonarroti, Michelangelo. 1513-15. The Slav. Marble, 2.09 m. Paris, The Louvre.

Data Sets

Creator. Year. Title. Place: Publisher. link

Example:

The World Bank. 2012. World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.

Video/DVD

Lastname, Firstname. Year. Title. Performed by Firstname Lastname. Place: Studio. Format.

example:

Wong, John. 1999. Cool People at the Libe. Directed by Cat Toff. Northfield: Gould Libe. DVD.

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