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BIOL 126: Energy Flow in Biological Systems

Profs. David Hougen-Eitzman and Mike Nishizaki - Spring 24

References in American Naturalist Style

General Instructions from American Naturalist's Instructions for Authors page:

  • Authors who use citation managers to generate reference lists automatically should still check through their reference text to ensure the citations are accurate and complete.
  • We encourage authors to consider whether there are papers by scientists from diverse backgrounds that should be included in the Literature Cited.

  • More info in the "References" section under MANUSCRIPT FORMAT

In-Text Citations

  • In-text citations include first-author last names and year.
    • Here is a sample sentence that needs a citation (Ramanujan 2010).
  • List in-text citations chronologically, then alphabetically for the same year.
    • Another great sentence that needs some citations (Xeno and Alpha 2019; Penguin et al. 2020; Poppins et al. 2020). 
    • Note that with the first citation, Xeno is author 1; that paper is cited first because it was written first.
    • Since Poppins and Penguin were published the same year, Penguin is listed first because 'e' is alphabetized before 'o'.

Literature Cited

  • The Literature Cited is alphabetical by first-author's last name and year.
  • Cite unpublished work as "A. B. Smith and C. D. Jones, unpublished data" or "E. F. Smith and G. H. Jones, unpublished manuscript."
  • "In review" manuscripts should be referred to as unpublished manuscripts in text and not listed in the Literature Cited.
  • Spell out all journal and press names in the literature cited.
  • Provide the city of publication for books.
  • Follow journal reference style. For example:
    • Hubbell, S. P., and R. B. Foster. 1986. Canopy gaps and the dynamics of a Neotropical forest. Pages 77-96 in M. J. Crawley, ed. Plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

    • Maynard Smith, J. 1966. Sympatric speciation. American Naturalist 100:637-650.

    • Stier, A., N. B. Metcalfe, and P. Monaghan. 2020. Pace and stability of embryonic development affect telomere dynamics: an experimental study in a precocial bird model. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 287:20201378.